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dc.contributor.advisorBarkema, Herman W.
dc.contributor.advisorDe Buck, Jeroen M.
dc.contributor.authorBorin Nobrega, Diego
dc.date2020-11
dc.date.accessioned2020-07-31T18:44:18Z
dc.date.available2020-07-31T18:44:18Z
dc.date.issued2020-07-27
dc.identifier.citationBorin Nobrega, D. (2020). Antimicrobial resistance: Prevalence, genetics and associations with antimicrobial use in food-producing animals (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, AB.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1880/112352
dc.description.abstractAntimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock has come under growing criticism. There is increasing pressure to optimize AMU in food-producing animals, which will likely entail restrictions and voluntary reductions of their use, as well as implementation of protocols promoting antimicrobial stewardship. In this thesis, 1) methods were compared for obtaining AMU data on dairy farms, 2) factors associated with the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) isolated from intramammary infections were studied, 3) treatment strategies for non-severe clinical mastitis (CM) in dairy cattle were contrasted, and 4) effects of restricted antimicrobial use in food-producing animals towards the prevalence of AMR genes (ARGs) were evaluated. Chapter 2 confirmed that treatment records accurately quantified AMU in well-managed dairy herds. Yet, their widespread adoption into AMU surveillance cannot be recommended, due to an underestimation of AMU in herds with elevated bulk tank somatic cell count. In regard to AMR, Chapter 3 demonstrated that resistance against tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin in NAS was common in Canadian dairy herds. In Chapter 4, factors associated with AMR were further explored. An association between AMR in NAS and AMU was present when penicillins, 3rd-generation cephalosporins or macrolides were administered systemically, whereas intramammary use of antimicrobials were not associated with AMR. As antimicrobials classified as critically important antimicrobials (CIAs) for humans were associated with AMR, in Chapter 5 a systematic review was done to assess whether CIAs and non-CIAs had comparable efficacy to treat non-severe bovine CM caused by the most prevalent bacteria causing mastitis worldwide. No protocol including the use of CIAs had superior bacteriological cure rates of non-severe CM than protocols relying on non-CIAs. Therefore, no adverse effects in terms of animal health should be expected by ceasing use of CIAs for treating non-severe CM in dairy herds. A second systematic review showed that restricted AMU in food animals was associated with a lower presence of ARGs in bacteria isolated from animals and humans. Reducing use of CIAs to treat non-severe CM in typical dairy herds may reduce load of ARGs without significant impacts on animal health and welfare.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.rightsUniversity of Calgary graduate students retain copyright ownership and moral rights for their thesis. You may use this material in any way that is permitted by the Copyright Act or through licensing that has been assigned to the document. For uses that are not allowable under copyright legislation or licensing, you are required to seek permission.en_US
dc.subjectantimicrobial resistanceen_US
dc.subjectdairy cowsen_US
dc.subjectfood-producing animalsen_US
dc.subjectmastitisen_US
dc.subjectantimicrobial useen_US
dc.subject.classificationFood Science and Technologyen_US
dc.subject.classificationVeterinary Scienceen_US
dc.subject.classificationEpidemiologyen_US
dc.titleAntimicrobial resistance: Prevalence, genetics and associations with antimicrobial use in food-producing animalsen_US
dc.typedoctoral thesisen_US
dc.publisher.facultyVeterinary Medicineen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Calgaryen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy (PhD)en_US
thesis.degree.disciplineVeterinary Medical Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Calgaryen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDeardon, Rob
dc.contributor.committeememberDufour, Simon
dc.contributor.committeememberSaini, Vineet
ucalgary.item.requestcopytrueen_US


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University of Calgary graduate students retain copyright ownership and moral rights for their thesis. You may use this material in any way that is permitted by the Copyright Act or through licensing that has been assigned to the document. For uses that are not allowable under copyright legislation or licensing, you are required to seek permission.